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Its name could be taken to mean "headland of the small huts", which can be attributed to the indigenous buildings that existed along the coast.The emirate is in the northern part of the UAE, bordering Oman's exclave of Musandam.The maritime dominance of the Persian Gulf by Emirati traders led to conflicts with European powers, including the Portuguese and British.Following decades of maritime conflict, the coastal emirates became known as the Trucial States with the signing of a Perpetual Treaty of Maritime Peace with the British in 1819 (ratified in 1853 and again in 1892), which established the Trucial States as a British Protectorate.There is no proof of contact with the outside world at that stage, although in time lively trading links developed with civilisations in Mesopotamia, Iran and the Harappan culture of the Indus Valley.This contact persisted and became wide-ranging, probably motivated by the trade in copper from the Hajar Mountains, which commenced around 3,000 BCE.

The average temperature is 18 to 25 °C (64 to 77 °F) in January and 29 to 43 °C (84 to 109 °F) in July.

It consists of a northern part (where the city of Ras al-Khaimah is situated), and a large inland exclave in the south (near Hatta), and a few small islands in the Persian Gulf.

According to Sheikh Sultan bin Muhammad Al-Qasimi, current ruler of Sharjah Emirate, the city of Ras al-Khaimah (which before was the capital of the state that is now Sharjah) was historically known as Julfar and was founded by Armenians who escaped Persia during the Mongol invasion.

The sovereign constitutional monarchy is a federation of seven emirates consisting of Abu Dhabi (which serves as the capital), Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras Al Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm Al Quwain.

Their boundaries are complex, with numerous enclaves within the various emirates.

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